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Gravitational Evidence for Dark Matter is also Evidence for Antigravity Matter.

According to the AGM Theory these gravitational effects are caused by a local reduction in the density of antigravity matter, not by the presence of dark matter.  The maths behind this statement is explored in Investigation.  Set out below is further evidence for antigravity matter.  Much of it is difficult to explain using theories that depend on gravitationally attractive dark matter.

 

For a summary description of antigravity matter behaviour see Behaviour. 

 

Predictions:-

  

The Average Density of Bok Globules (small Molecular Clouds) reduces as their Mass increases.

Bok globules are small dense molecular clouds.  The black points on the graph on the right represent 11 Bok globules.  More massive Bok globules are less dense.  This graph is generated in Analysis of Bok Globules.

 

According to the AGM Theory

Bok globules are at the AGM Exclusion Density.  The average density of their normal matter content should be related to radius by a line with the gradient of the red line on the left.  This is explained further in Behaviour > AGM Exclusion Density.

 

Prediction:- The average density of normal matter in all approximately spherical Bok globules will be found to follow the same trend.

 

Globular Clusters within the Milky Way show a Relationship between Distance from the Galaxy Plane and Density Factor (an AGM Theory concept).

Globular clusters that are within 40kly of the centre of the Milky Way are plotted on a graph on the left.  Density Factor (an AGM Theory concept related to density and described in the link below) increases with distance from the galaxy plane.

 

According to the AGM Theory

Globular clusters are moving through the antigravity matter atmosphere as they orbit the Milky Way.  An antigravity matter wind pushes their AGM Boundary inwards and makes them denser.  Close to the plane the antigravity matter is orbiting as well so the relative velocity is lower.  This is described further in Investigation > Globular Clusters.

 

Pulsar Kicks do not occur in Globular Clusters.

Pulsar Kicks do not appear to occur in supernovae that are in globular clusters. (source)

 

According to the AGM theory

Pulsar Kicks are caused by flows of antigravity matter.  There is no antigravity matter within globular clusters because they are at or above the AGM Exclusion Density.  Two pathways for the development of supernova remnants are described in Behaviour > Supernova Remnants – Ring and Behaviour > Supernova Remnants – Spherical.  Globular clusters are described in Behaviour > Phase Change

 

Prediction:- Pulsar kicks also do not occur in the centres of elliptical galaxies and in the centres of dense spiral galaxy cores.

 

Dark Matter appears to remain at low Density.

Unlike normal matter, dark matter does not appear to fall to a dense point at its centre of gravity.  For example the graph on the left represents the apparent density / radius relationship of dark matter in and around galaxy cluster Abell 1689.  This graph is generated in Investigation > Abell 1689.  Similar results are shown in Investigation for the Coma Cluster.

 

According to the AGM Theory

There is no dark matter.  The gravity that has been attributed to dark matter is actually caused by a local reduction in the density of antigravity matter.  The density of antigravity matter cannot go below zero.  This sets an upper limit on the possible apparent density of dark matter. 

 

Prediction:- There is an upper limit to the apparent density of dark matter.

 

The Gravity of Abell 1689 above is consistent with an Antigravity Matter Vortex.

The apparent density / radius relationship of dark matter in and around galaxy cluster Abell 1689 is shown in the graph above. 

 

According to the AGM Theory

In Abell 1689 the density of antigravity matter follows the curve shown on the right.  This graph is generated in Investigation > Abell 1689.  The curve has been produced by inverting, factoring and transposing the curve above.  The density reduction is caused by an antigravity matter vortex as described in Behaviour > AGM Vortex.  The shape of the curve, particularly the flattening at low radius, is what would be expected from a vortex driven by the rotation(s) of the cluster.

 

Further correlation with the AGM Theory is in the results of the same analysis done with the Coma Cluster shown in Investigation.

 

The Existence of Spiral Galaxies

Spiral galaxies are common in the universe.  However many simulations of gravitationally bound matter do not produce core-and-disc shapes or spirals.  An example of this is shown in Galaxy Simulations.  Another example is the Bolshoi supercomputer simulation which is described here [Bolshoi paper] with more results here [Bolshoi results].  The image on the left is from that simulation.  No spirals are apparent. 

 

However other simulations do produce shapes like spiral galaxies.  For example:- [ERIS results], [ERIS paper], [AREPO results], [AREPO paper].

 

According to the AGM theory

Real spiral galaxies are produced by antigravity matter as described in Behaviour > Rotating Galaxy and as demonstrated in Galaxy Simulations.  However spirals can be produced in simulations without antigravity matter if gravitational softening is used.  Gravitational softening is a mathematical technique that is described for example here.  It has the effect of reducing simulated gravitational forces at short range.  Unfortunately this makes a simulation unrealistic.  The ERIS simulation includes gravitational softening with a softening length of 120 pc.  The AREPO simulation has a more dynamic gravitational softening approach.

 

Predictions:-

  • If antigravity matter is added to the Bolshoi simulation spiral galaxy shapes will be produced.
  • If the ERIS and AREPO simulations are re-run with a much smaller gravitational softening distance (and still without antigravity matter) the discs and spiral arms will not form.

 

Deep Space Objects with Tails

The star Mira is particularly large, is moving particularly quickly and has a 13 light year long tail of stellar material (source). 

 

According to the AGM theory

This is caused by drag as Mira passes through antigravity matter.  Mira is a binary system with a red giant star being stripped of matter by its partner (source).  This results in a continuous supply of stellar material into space around the system.  It is this material that is exposed to the antigravity matter wind and pulled out into the tail.

 

This galaxy on the left is in Abell 3627 (source and another source).  It appears to have two tails.  The main tail is over 200,000 light years long and contains many young stars.

 

The galaxy on the right is IC 3418 in the Virgo Cluster.  It has a tail that contains clusters of massive young stars (source).

 

According to the AGM theory

Antigravity matter drag affects interstellar molecular gasses and dust more strongly than stars. A high speed antigravity matter wind is blowing on the galaxies.  The tails are caused by the antigravity matter wind stripping the interstellar matter out of the galaxy.  This matter then coalesces and collapses to form new stars in the tail.

 

The second tail behind Abel 3627 is probably caused by a smaller galaxy which is orbiting the larger galaxy.  As they both move through the antigravity matter the smaller galaxy’s tail takes the shape of a helix.

 

The Magellanic Clouds are two smaller galaxies orbiting the Milky Way.  They have a tail known as the Magellanic Stream which is leading them in orbit.  Others have created computer models that have simulated the Magellanic Stream using drag (source).  The fact that the Magellanic Stream is leading the Magellanic Clouds is consistent with it being caused by drag.  Usually if an orbiting object is gently slowed it falls to a lower orbit, speeds up and overtakes its previous position.

 

According to the AGM theory

Antigravity matter drag affects molecular clouds more strongly than stars. The Magellanic Cloud galaxies are pushing through antigravity matter as they orbit the Milky Way.  The Magellanic Stream is caused by antigravity matter drag scouring the molecular clouds out of the Magellanic Cloud galaxies.

 

This image shows a section of IC 1848, the Soul Nebula (source). Several of the elongated shapes appear to have brighter objects at the left end.  Shapes like these are common within molecular clouds and nebulae.

 

According to the AGM theory

An antigravity matter wind is blowing from left to right in the image.  Dense normal matter objects are less affected by the wind than diffuse clouds.  The antigravity matter wind is deflected by the dense objects as shown in the diagram below.  Molecular clouds that are in the wake region of the dense objects are partially protected from the wind. 

 

This image is protostar IRAS 20324+4057. (source)

 

According to the AGM theory

An antigravity wind is blowing past the protostar from right to left in the image.  Gas and dust clouds are more affected by the wind than the protostar.  They are dragged out into a tail.

 

The Guitar Nebula

The Guitar Nebula is shown in the far right image.  At the head of the guitar is a fast moving slow spinning neutron star, PSR 2224 + 65. (one source and another source).

 

According to the AGM theory

The shape of the Guitar Nebula is built up as shown on the right.  The toroidal vortex consists of antigravity matter mixed with gas and dust from the supernova.  Momentum is conserved as the vortex is kicked in the opposite direction to the pulsar by antigravity repulsion.  

 

Further correlation with the AGM theory is in the fact that this is a slow spinning pulsar, and that this (Spherical) pathway has generated one of the fastest moving pulsars known.  According to this explanation of the Guitar Nebula the kick would have occurred around 150 years ago.  Note that this would not have been the time of the supernova.  The kick occurs many years (possibly thousands of years) after the supernova event.  The mechanism for this is described in more detail in Behaviour > Supernova Remnant - Spherical. 

 

Predictions:-

  • The toroidal vortex is moving in the opposite direction to the pulsar (relative to the central ball) about half as fast as the pulsar.  This should be detectable now. 
  • A more powerful telescope may be able to resolve more features of the toroidal vortex, for example the central hole. 

 

Some Molecular Clouds look like Globules in a Lava Lamp while others look like Smoke.

Molecular clouds sometimes have clearly defined surfaces and exhibit shapes that are reminiscent of one opaque liquid within another immiscible transparent liquid.  For example the image on the right is a section of the Carina Nebula (source).

 

According to the AGM theory

Molecular clouds like those in the image to the right are at the AGM Exclusion Density.  They have excluded antigravity matter from within but are contained by the antigravity matter around them.  This gives them their sharp edged appearance.  They are examples of the liquid-like AGM Excluded Phase as described in Behaviour > Phase Change.

 

These two labelled molecular clouds in the Carina Nebula (source) have parallel tails of darker molecular material.  The two molecular clouds have well defined surfaces and have the appearance of globules of liquid.  The two tails stretch out upwards and to the right and have the appearance of black smoke.  The tails even appear to have regions of laminar and turbulent flow like smoke trails can do.  This presents several mysteries:-

  • Why are there two such very different types of molecular material – the globular clouds and the smoky tails?
  • One alternative explanation for the clearly defined surfaces is that molecular clouds are being re-ionised by deep space radiation.  So why do the smoky tails persist over great distances when they appear to be made from even thinner material?

 

According to the AGM theory

Both the clouds and the tails consist of molecular gasses and dust.  The clouds on the left are both at about the AGM Exclusion Density.  They have excluded antigravity matter from within but are contained by the antigravity matter around them.  This gives them their sharp edged appearance.  They represent the liquid-like AGM Excluded state as described in Behaviour > Phase Change. 

 

However the antigravity matter is also flowing past them from bottom left to top right in the image.  It is tearing them apart and producing a trail of many much smaller pieces of molecular matter.  On average this trail is below the AGM Exclusion Density and represents the gas-like AGM Mixed state.  The turbulence of the antigravity matter wind blows the trail into shapes reminiscent of smoke. 

 

A higher resolution image of one of these molecular clouds is here (source).  In this image the cloud can be seen to be being torn into smaller pieces and also converted into the lower density smoke-like form.  The energy density of deep space radiation is very low as we can observe because inactive deep space objects become cold.  Consequently molecular clouds are not usually re-ionised by deep space radiation.

 

Supernova Remnants turned Inside Out

Some supernova remnants feature clouds of heavier element outside clouds of lighter elements.  An example is shown on the right and described here.  The elements would have been arranged the other way round with the heaviest on the inside within the precursor star.

 

According to the AGM Theory

The gas clouds are expanding from the supernova and are pushing through antigravity matter outside the star’s AGM Boundary.  Antigravity matter particles rarely collide with the normal matter atoms and molecules.  However on a scale of light years the effect of these rare collisions becomes significant.  Over a significant proportion of the radius of the nebula the gasses flowing out from the star therefore feel a gentle drag as a result of atomic level collisions with antigravity matter particles.  Heavier atoms are less affected by the drag because they have more mass so they have covered a greater distance from the star.  A similar mechanism affects Wolf-Rayet star W136 described below.

 

The Existence of Globular Clusters and Elliptical Galaxies

Globular clusters are dense groups of usually old stars orbiting within a galaxy.  Elliptical galaxies are enormous dense collections of stars without rotating discs.

 

According to the AGM Theory

Globular Clusters are fragments of an old AGM Excluded phase galaxy core or elliptical that has been captured by a new galaxy.  Elliptical galaxies are what remains when the disc of a spiral galaxy has fallen into the core.  They are both examples of the liquid-like AGM Excluded Phase and are described further in Behaviour and Investigation.  Globular clusters may contain old stars but they are relatively new and short lived phenomena because they are being torn apart by the tidal effects and antigravity matter drag of the new galaxy.

 

Molecular Clouds located around the Rims of Spiral Galaxies

On the left is the Southern Pinwheel Galaxy, M83, the light blue objects are stars and the pink objects are molecular clouds.  The clouds are up to 140,000 light years from the centre of the galaxy.  There are many young stars in the regions of the molecular clouds around the outside of the galaxy (source). 

On the right is 2MASX J00482185-2507365 the nearer galaxy can be seen to be surrounded by a rim of dark molecular clouds which are only visible because by chance it is silhouetted in front of the farther galaxy. (source)

According to the AGM theory

Molecular clouds are being stripped from between the stars within the galaxy discs and blown outwards in the galaxy plane by the antigravity matter wind caused by the rotation of the galaxy.  The clouds then coalesce and collapse to form new stars.  This is described in Behaviour > Rotating Galaxy.

 

The Local Interstellar Cloud is moving away from the Milky Way Centre.

Interstellar molecular matter in the vicinity of the sun is moving away from the centre of the galaxy as shown on the right (source).

 

According to the AGM theory

Molecular clouds are being transported outwards by the flow of antigravity matter within the Milky Way’s antigravity matter vortex as described in Behaviour > Rotating Galaxy.

 

A Ring of Gravitational Lensing around one (but not other) Galaxy Cluster Collisions

 The blue ring on the left shows the distribution of gravitational lensing effect around a galaxy cluster. This has been presented as evidence of a ripple of dark matter splashing outward from two colliding galaxy clusters (source).  However this explanation is inconsistent with the explanation of the Bullet Cluster below in which it is proposed that dark matter has passed through the collision unaffected (source).

According to the AGM theory

The blue ring is caused by antigravity matter vortices.  An image from a laboratory demonstration of this is shown on the right.  The full MPEG of the demonstration is shown at Vortex Collision.

 

Before the collision the two galaxy clusters were rotating and had generated two enormous antigravity matter vortices by the mechanism described in Behaviour > AGM Vortex.  The two clusters and their two antigravity matter vortices were possibly rotating in opposite directions.  Many smaller antigravity matter vortices have splashed out from the collision as demonstrated in that MPEG.

 

The image on the right shows the Bullet Cluster which again consists of two colliding galaxy clusters.  This has also been presented as evidence of dark matter because the galaxies (white spots) and the purported dark matter (blue) in the two clusters have both passed straight through the collision almost unaffected while the gas clouds (pink) have collided and heated up.  This is claimed to prove the existence of dark matter and to demonstrate that dark matter doesn’t interact with itself or with normal matter except through gravity (source).  However this is inconsistent with the dark matter based explanation of the blue ring image above.

According to the AGM theory

The areas of lensing are caused by two antigravity matter vortices as described in Behaviour > AGM Vortex, not by dark matter.  The two vortices of the two clusters may have passed straight through or may have splashed outwards and then decayed.  This depends on the relative directions of rotations of the two clusters.  However the galaxy clusters have passed straight through, have continued to rotate and have re-created their vortices to give the gravity distribution observed.  The vortex of the cluster on the right appears to be pulling on the pink plasma cloud like a whirlpool in the surface of a liquid.

 

The Correlation between Pulsar Kick Direction and Pulsar Spin Axis

There may be a correlation between Pulsar Kick direction and Pulsar spin axis. (source)

 

According to the AGM theory

Pulsar Kicks are caused by flows of antigravity matter.  The Ring pathway in Behaviour > Supernova Remnant – Ring describes a mechanism by which Pulsar Kick direction will be linked to the Pulsar spin axis.

 

Supernova Remnants containing Pairs of Rings

sn87a.gifSeveral supernova remnants contain pairs of rings.  The best example is SN 1987a on the left.

 

According to the AGM theory

The outer pair of rings is caused by opposing toroidal vortices of antigravity matter.  A pathway for the development of a pair of rings is described in Behaviour > Supernova Remnant – Ring. 

 

Further evidence of antigravity matter is provided by the fact that the outer rings are slightly offset from the inner rings.  This demonstrates that the supernova core is moving through the antigravity matter, thereby generating a background antigravity matter wind which has blown the outer rings sideways.

 

Dust Fingers Pointing inwards towards the Centre of Ring Nebulae

Many supernova remnants are in the shape of a ring.  Most ring nebulae contain fingers of remnant material pointing inwards towards the centre of the ring..

 

According to the AGM theory

Ring nebulae and their fingers of remnant material are caused by flows of antigravity matter as described in Behaviour > Supernova Remnant – Ring.

 

Example Galaxies can be interpreted using the AGM Theory.

According to the AGM Theory

Interpretations of several galaxies are included in Evidence > Galaxies.

 

The Existence of Strings of Stars connected to Spiral Galaxy Cores

There appears to be a string of stars connecting the cores of galaxies NGC 5216 and NGC 5218 in Keenan’s system on the right (source).

 

A string of stars appears to be connected to the core of NGC 3628 on the left. (source).

 

According to the AGM theory

A rotating galaxy produces a vortex in the surrounding antigravity matter.  If two adjacent galaxies are rotating in the same direction and close to each other’s axes their two vortices can join up so that the combined vortex stretches from one galaxy core to the other.  As the vortex circulates it reduces the density of antigravity matter along its axis.  This generates gravity and captures normal matter objects.  This is described in more detail in Behaviour > Antigravity Matter Vortex.

 

A connecting vortex is a temporary feature that breaks and reforms regularly as the galaxies orbit each other.

 

Young Stars with Elliptical Orbits

Some young stars are orbiting the Milky Way galaxy slower than older stars in the same neighbourhood.  This causes them to follow elliptical paths (source).

According to the AGM theory

Mature stars are in an approximately circular orbit around the galaxy with velocity represented by vector A.  Stars shed gas and dust during and at the end of their lives.  This material cools and forms molecular clouds.  The clouds are slowed and swept outwards by the antigravity matter wind with velocity vector B.  Molecular clouds coalesce and collapse to form new stars which are not so strongly affected by the antigravity matter wind. Initially these young stars have the velocity of the molecular clouds which formed them.  However with time they follow an elliptical orbit as shown by C.  After some time the antigravity matter drag reduces their orbital energy and radius but also makes their orbit more circular as shown by D.

 

Separation of Elements

This is Wolf-Rayet star W136 inside the Crescent Nebula NGC 6888.  The nebula is 25 light years across.  Stars like this blast a large proportion of their mass into space over a period of several thousand years.  In this image hydrogen is pink and oxygen is blue (source).    It can be seen that the hydrogen and oxygen have partially separated.  If these gasses were on ballistic trajectories we would not expect them to separate.  If the gasses were in an atmosphere governed by internal pressure and temperature then we might expect the hydrogen proportion to increase with altitude and we would not expect a sharp change in ratios.  If the gasses were colliding with an interstellar medium of normal gasses we would expect to see a single turbulent and well mixed shock front.

 

According to the AGM theory

The average density of the combined nebula and central star is less than the AGM Exclusion Density.  The AGM Boundary of the central star is inside the nebula.  The gas clouds are expanding from the central star and are pushing through antigravity matter outside the central star’s AGM Boundary.  Antigravity matter particles rarely collide with the normal matter atoms and molecules.  However on a scale of light years the effect of these rare collisions becomes significant.  Over a significant proportion of the radius of the nebula the gasses flowing out from the star therefore feel a gentle drag as a result of atomic level collisions with antigravity matter particles.  Oxygen atoms are less affected by the drag because they have more mass so they have covered a greater distance from the star. 

 

Collision of Oxygen with the Interstellar Medium but no sign of Hydrogen.

In the image of the Crescent Nebula NGC 6888 above the hydrogen and oxygen are emitting radiation which allows us to detect them.  If the emissions are due to them colliding with an interstellar medium containing hydrogen then we would expect to see hydrogen emissions co-located with the oxygen emissions.

 

According to the AGM theory

The oxygen is colliding with antigravity matter.

 

Nebulae with no Source of Illumination

On the right is IRAS 05437+2502 (source).  There is no apparent source of illumination for the bright inverted V in the centre of the image.

 

According to the AGM Theory

These clouds are in the liquid-like AGM Excluded Phase as described in Behaviour > Phase Change.  The clouds are moving approximately vertically upwards in the image through the antigravity matter.  They experience AGM drag and slow down, but the densest regions of cloud retain their speed longest and create peaks of material looking like mountain tops.  Where the cloud is moving very fast there is mixing between normal matter and antigravity matter particles at the AGM Boundary.  Molecules of gas collide with antigravity matter particles.  They are briefly ionised and emit light as they re-combine.  The cloud surfaces facing in the direction of relative movement glow brighter than other surfaces, and fastest moving regions glow brightest.  The result is that the cloud looks as if it has been illuminated from above but there is no visible source of illumination.

 

The Distribution of Galaxies in the Universe

Galaxies appear to be arranged in enormous formations of sheets and strings with vast apparently empty spaces in between as described for example here and here.

 

According to the AGM theory

This is caused by antigravity matter as described in Behaviour > Early Universe

 

The Speed of Galaxy Formation in the Early Universe

Galaxies have been observed that appear to have formed less than a billion years after the creation of the universe. (source)

 

According to the AGM theory

There are two mechanisms by which antigravity matter speeds up the development of galaxies in the early universe.  The first is that antigravity matter pushes normal matter together at the same time as gravity pulls it together.  The second is that antigravity matter drag reduces the kinetic energy of orbiting stars, galaxies and other objects and helps them to fall together.

 

other links

Links to simulation results and further explanations:- Galaxy simulation introduction, Galaxy simulation – 3 clusters

 

Archive:-The original Antigravity Matter paper as a single html page, the original Antigravity Matter paper as a pdf document.

 

© Copyright Tim E Simmons 2009 to 2013. Last updated 25th September 2013.  Major changes are logged in AGM Change Log.